The island of Samos in comparison to the rest
of the Greek islands ,is located within a breathing distance from
the coastline of Asia Minor and acts as the connecting link of
Greece to the East. Because of its geographic position it was
a desirable prize for many aspiring conquerors. It succeeded though,
in prospering and elevating valuable personalities in the sciences
In the sciences the figures of Pythagoras and Aristarchos emerged.
Pythagoras (580-490 b.c.) the celebrated philosopher and mathematician,
son of Mnisarchos, is included amongst the most famous men of
the ancient world and his theories are well known and are applicable
even to this day.
The teachings of Pythagoras were based in the dogma of reincarnation
within which the individual is redeemed from the earthly cosmos
of sensation and regains the lost divine grace and existence.
The human body constitutes the prison of the soul. Self-control
and self-criticism are essential requirements for the development
and healthy spiritualistic growth of the individual.
The dogma of reincarnation is whole, through the teaching of numbers
that consist of the utmost mark of the Pythagorean teachings.
According to Pythagoras, the beginning and the essence of beings
is the number, everything "is made up of numbers". This phrasing
is based on the observation that the height of the sounds is depended
by the length of the strings of the musical organ, and the musical
harmony is based on mathematical proportions. The numbers consist
of a perfect harmony and the holly number 4, which consists the
base of creation. The phrase of the hecatombs, known as the Pythagorean
theorem is known worldwide. Pythagoras stated the fundamental
ploblem of the philosophy of mathematics having as a result, for
the Greeks to still have the world lead until today. His expressions
about ethical philosophy but also in the science of mathematics,
inspired later generations. A bright example is the scientist
Aristarchos who replaced the geocentric system (30 b.c.) with
Aristarchos the Samios was a famous astrophysicist and a great
astronomer, who expressed the theory concerning the movement of
the Earth. The Polish astronomer Copernicus later studied his
writings, in order to formulate the Copernicus system according
to which the earth and the stars move around the sun.
In the area of sculpting ,the sculptors
Poikos and Theodoros ( 6th-5th cent.) invented the production
of molded or cast cooper statues using a clay model and
the sculptor Pythagoras that is said to be the creator
of Iniochos of Delphi. While during same period, lived
the stamp-sculptor named Mnisarchos, father of the famous
philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras.
In the area of painting, the painter Savrias stands out
and as he was the first who devised the shading of paintings.
In the area of archeology the unique Mandioklis (513 b.c.)
that created the floating bridge on the Bosporus and in
the area of hydraulic mechanics the in famous Evpalinos
with his famed Evpalinio Origma at Pythagorio.
In the area of shipping, a new type of ship with 50 oars known
as the Samaina was constructed here for the first time. As part
of the Cyclades culture the island contributed in its promotion
During the Neohellenic years the island cultivated many artists,
scientists and scholars, but not as significant as those of the
ancient Samions. The Aegean traditional architecture, the painting
and sculpturing techniques and pottery follow the pattern that
was apparent on all the islands of the Northeastern Aegean.
At the archeological museum findings from
Iraion are exhibited. The constitution of the Samion sculptor
Geneleo, the torso of Kouros of Lefkia, sculptures and
statues from the Hellenistic period, a collection of cooper
objects from Egypt and Persia, clay objects from Cyprus,
prehistoric vases and ceramic from the Geometrical and
At the Ecclesiastic and Byzantine museum, there is a vast
collection of gold and silver works, golden weaved embroidery
and manuscripts on membrane. At the folkloric museum you
will have the possibility to admire pictures inspired
from the traditional life of the island, hand woven embroidery,
loom and spindle articles.
Finally don't forget to visit the Paleontology museum, which was
created by the professor of paleontology at the Aristotle University,
John Melentis with the economic contribution of Constantine and
Maria Zimalis. There you will find fossils of animals that lived
on the island and are dated back millions of years that came to
light in 1963. You will also find fossilized bones from civilized
species of a pony and small sized elephants and rhinoceros. These
animals existed in the surrounding area before the Aegean Sea
was formed by geological realignments.