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The Evpalinio Origma is thought as the peak of technical creativity of ancient Samos and one of the greatest achievements of the entire ancient world. It is the ancient water-reservoir of the city, which was found inside the mountain of the Virgin Mary of Spiliani and was constructed in 550 B.C. by Evpalini, the famous plumber from ancient Megara. The project was made up of a tunnel of 853 meters in length and of a height and width comfortable for the passing thought of one person to a depth of 80 meters below the surface of the ground. Large pipes made of clay that carried water, while under the tunnel there was an underground passage. The accidental discovery of this project came to light in 1881 from the priest of the monastery of the Saint Triadas Kirillo.

The people of Samos of that period were one the first Greek navigators. The Samian Kirilaios is said to have discovered the Girbraltar.

The beginning of the end of a brilliant period ends with the martyrdom death of Polikratis from the Persian satrap Orsitis who mislead him through deceit and murdered him. The island experienced a period of instability, decline and the control moved over to the Persians.

The famous architect and mechanic from Samos Mandroklis that managed to connect Bosporos by creating a bridge with ships in order to have the army of Darios pass over to Europe and offered the people of Samons glory.
Ancient Samos

When Darios did not succeed in Skithia, Lerinthos a colony of Samos in Propondida revolted against the Persians together with the Greek cities from the Bosporos and the Troada. This revolution resulted in being the forerunner of the Ionic revolution. In 479 b.c. in the naval battle of Mikali the Samians defeated the Persians with the help of the Greek fleet and the island became a member of the Athenian Alliance. The island with its new prosperity caused the competitive malice of Athens with the instigation of Aspasia, wife of general Pericles, who came from Militos a city that was a rival to Samos.

Small village
The Athenians destroyed the island that did not manage from that time to reclaim its lost power. The destiny of the island was associated with that of the Athenian government and the Athenians granted the people of Samos autonomy and rebuilt the walls that they had destroyed.

During the period of the Peloponnesian war around 430-404 b.c. the island was converted into an Athenian center of naval campaigns. The island was then passed over to the Lakedemonians, after that to the Athenians, the Spartans, the Persians and then returned back to the control of Athens.

In the Hellenistic years of Alexander the Great, the island became semi-autonomous and was already under the domination of the Macedonians. After that Samos like all the other Greek cities become a part of the "Suburbs of Asia" under the Roman Empire. Around the end of the Miuthridatian pirates harassed war the island. With the epoch-making rupture of Antonios and Oktavianos the island hosts the fleets and was the erotic refuge of Antonios and Cleopatra around 40 b.c. During the years of Domitianos and Valerios Messalinas it belonged to "Province of the islands" with its capital being Rhodes.

During the whole period of domination from the Romans the island experienced large catastrophes both by the Romans but also from the pirate attacks. Around the 5th century it was destroyed by the attacks of the German tribes.

During the Byzantine period and the division in counties the island became the 6th county. In the midst of the 7th century it was plundered by attacks from the Sirians and around 880 b.c. it was conquered by the Tripoliti of Emiri of Crete. In 1024 the island drives back the raid of the Russians in the Aegean and in 1809 the Turks conquer it.

The decline of the island continues during the period of the Franks (1207-1479). The inhabitants of the island are now very few, who abandon the island and take refuge at the island of Chios. The time period between 1476 and 1562 was a time of depopulation. Under these conditions the Turks invaded the desolated island, which they colonized it in 1550. With the allowance of privileges to the Christians who were settled at the island, Samos reorganizes. The island was essentially autonomous during the years of the Turkish occupation until the 18th century, at which time two factions called Kallikantzaroi and Karmanioloi claim the leadership. The internal conflicts contributed in the maturing of the inhabitants and prepared them for the revolution of 1821.

Endless beach at Samos
The island became organized and implemented the celebrated "Military political System of Samos".

In spite of the fact that the island was located close to Turkey and was very far from Athens, the people of Samos were some of the first who took part in the struggle against the Turkish yoke. With systematic raids on the coasts of Asia Minor they created intense diversions and they helped greatly this way with the Greek revolution. Under the protection of the Greek fleet the Turks could not threaten the island.

With their commander Lykourgos Logothetis and the courageous Captain Stamatis the Turks kept their distance for many years. With the liberation, the island stayed out of the Greek nation, but it became independent and acquired its autonomy. In spite of the success of Samos, in 1830 the mighty powers of that era decided that the island should be given over to Turkey with the agreement that it retains its autonomy.

In 1832 the Sultan recognizes the island as principality with tax tribute, and the High Gate appointed a Greek leader with his own parliament. The leaders that will follow were personally friendly towards the Turks, something that dissatisfied the inhabitants. In 1849 the inhabitants revolted with the presence of Turkish force on the island. In 1912 Themistoclis Sofoulis arrived on the island and with the help of the people dismisses the Turkish powers and formed a temporary revolutionary government, the so-called "Union of Samos after the free Greek Monarchy".On year later in 1913 the Greek fleet raised the Greek flag on the island.

From then on the island followed the fortune of the Greek nation. The supreme regime made the inhabitants unhappy but the island blossomed in both the commercial, economic, cultural and the intellectual sector. The incorporation of the island in the Greek force brought on its growth and prosperity.

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