The Evpalinio Origma is thought as the peak
of technical creativity of ancient Samos and one of the greatest
achievements of the entire ancient world. It is the ancient
water-reservoir of the city, which was found inside the mountain
of the Virgin Mary of Spiliani and was constructed in 550
B.C. by Evpalini, the famous plumber from ancient Megara.
The project was made up of a tunnel of 853 meters in length
and of a height and width comfortable for the passing thought
of one person to a depth of 80 meters below the surface of
the ground. Large pipes made of clay that carried water, while
under the tunnel there was an underground passage. The accidental
discovery of this project came to light in 1881 from the priest
of the monastery of the Saint Triadas Kirillo.
The people of Samos of that period
were one the first Greek navigators. The Samian
Kirilaios is said to have discovered the Girbraltar.
The beginning of the end of a brilliant period ends
with the martyrdom death of Polikratis from the
Persian satrap Orsitis who mislead him through deceit
and murdered him. The island experienced a period
of instability, decline and the control moved over
to the Persians.
The famous architect and mechanic from Samos Mandroklis
that managed to connect Bosporos by creating a bridge
with ships in order to have the army of Darios pass
over to Europe and offered the people of Samons
When Darios did not succeed in Skithia, Lerinthos a colony
of Samos in Propondida revolted against the Persians together
with the Greek cities from the Bosporos and the Troada. This
revolution resulted in being the forerunner of the Ionic revolution.
In 479 b.c. in the naval battle of Mikali the Samians defeated
the Persians with the help of the Greek fleet and the island
became a member of the Athenian Alliance. The island with
its new prosperity caused the competitive malice of Athens
with the instigation of Aspasia, wife of general Pericles,
who came from Militos a city that was a rival to Samos.
The Athenians destroyed the island
that did not manage from that time to reclaim its
lost power. The destiny of the island was associated
with that of the Athenian government and the Athenians
granted the people of Samos autonomy and rebuilt
the walls that they had destroyed.
During the period of the Peloponnesian war around
430-404 b.c. the island was converted into an Athenian
center of naval campaigns. The island was then passed
over to the Lakedemonians, after that to the Athenians,
the Spartans, the Persians and then returned back
to the control of Athens.
In the Hellenistic years of Alexander the Great, the island
became semi-autonomous and was already under the domination
of the Macedonians. After that Samos like all the other Greek
cities become a part of the "Suburbs of Asia" under the Roman
Empire. Around the end of the Miuthridatian pirates harassed
war the island. With the epoch-making rupture of Antonios
and Oktavianos the island hosts the fleets and was the erotic
refuge of Antonios and Cleopatra around 40 b.c. During the
years of Domitianos and Valerios Messalinas it belonged to
"Province of the islands" with its capital being Rhodes.
During the whole period of domination
from the Romans the island experienced large catastrophes
both by the Romans but also from the pirate attacks.
Around the 5th century it was destroyed by the attacks
of the German tribes.
During the Byzantine period and the division in
counties the island became the 6th county. In the
midst of the 7th century it was plundered by attacks
from the Sirians and around 880 b.c. it was conquered
by the Tripoliti of Emiri of Crete. In 1024 the
island drives back the raid of the Russians in the
Aegean and in 1809 the Turks conquer it.
The decline of the island continues during the period of the
Franks (1207-1479). The inhabitants of the island are now
very few, who abandon the island and take refuge at the island
of Chios. The time period between 1476 and 1562 was a time
of depopulation. Under these conditions the Turks invaded
the desolated island, which they colonized it in 1550. With
the allowance of privileges to the Christians who were settled
at the island, Samos reorganizes. The island was essentially
autonomous during the years of the Turkish occupation until
the 18th century, at which time two factions called Kallikantzaroi
and Karmanioloi claim the leadership. The internal conflicts
contributed in the maturing of the inhabitants and prepared
them for the revolution of 1821.
The island became organized and
implemented the celebrated "Military political
System of Samos".
In spite of the fact that the island was located
close to Turkey and was very far from Athens, the
people of Samos were some of the first who took
part in the struggle against the Turkish yoke. With
systematic raids on the coasts of Asia Minor they
created intense diversions and they helped greatly
this way with the Greek revolution. Under the protection
of the Greek fleet the Turks could not threaten
With their commander Lykourgos Logothetis and the courageous
Captain Stamatis the Turks kept their distance for many years.
With the liberation, the island stayed out of the Greek nation,
but it became independent and acquired its autonomy. In spite
of the success of Samos, in 1830 the mighty powers of that
era decided that the island should be given over to Turkey
with the agreement that it retains its autonomy.
In 1832 the Sultan recognizes the island as principality with
tax tribute, and the High Gate appointed a Greek leader with
his own parliament. The leaders that will follow were personally
friendly towards the Turks, something that dissatisfied the
inhabitants. In 1849 the inhabitants revolted with the presence
of Turkish force on the island. In 1912 Themistoclis Sofoulis
arrived on the island and with the help of the people dismisses
the Turkish powers and formed a temporary revolutionary government,
the so-called "Union of Samos after the free Greek Monarchy".On
year later in 1913 the Greek fleet raised the Greek flag on
From then on the island followed the fortune of the Greek
nation. The supreme regime made the inhabitants unhappy but
the island blossomed in both the commercial, economic, cultural
and the intellectual sector. The incorporation of the island
in the Greek force brought on its growth and prosperity.